Turkish citizens have been subject to the visa requirement to enter the Schengen area since the 1980s (delegation from the European Union to Turkey). After the end of the military coup in Turkey in 1980, asylum applications increased in number in European countries. This is why Germany and soon other European countries, such as France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, in particular, have begun to introduce the visa for Turkish citizens (Groenendijk and Gilde 2011, p. 53). Although some EU members have pledged to bilaterally abolish the visa agreement with Turkey and to join the Council of Europe in 1957, which governs the free movement of citizens, European countries have adopted a restrictive attitude in this regard since the 1970s (Groenendijk and Guild 2011, pp. 22-24). The visa requirement was introduced temporarily, but has been gradually maintained in a sustainable manner, being taken up to date by both Western European countries and other Member States. Due to the transfer of the issue of border management and the granting of visas to the second pillar of the EU, the CFSP through the Amsterdam Agreement, some of the new Member States that did not previously apply for visas for Turkish citizens, they have begun to implement the visa for Turkish citizens under the acquired alignment programme. Turkey has authorised the readmission agreement as a set of visa liberalisation procedures (Rep. of Turkey Ministry of EU Affairs 2015), which protects Turkish citizens (European Commission 2013b). “On 18 March 2018, the heads of state and government of the EU and Turkey agreed on the final issue of irregular migration from Turkey to the European Union, with legal possibilities for the return of refugees to the European Union (European Commission 2016a).” The implementation of the declaration requires the most important efforts of Greece and Turkey. “The EU and Turkey have agreed on certain points such as below (European Commission 2016a): European Union delegation to Turkey: visa policy and the local Schengen cooperation network in Turkey.
Available online at www.avrupa.info.tr/en/visa-policy-and-localschengen-cooperation-network-turkey-43, checked on 07.09.2019. Without prejudice to Article 23 and without prejudice to the right of the competent authorities to recover the costs of readmission to the person to be taken over, including persons covered by Article 3, paragraph 2, and Article 5, paragraph 2, or third parties, all transportation costs related to readmission and transit operations under this agreement, to the state border crossing point required for the Sections I and II application of the agreement; i.e. up to the limit of the final destination state for the applications covered by Section IV of the agreement, the requesting state is the responsibility of the requesting state. In this document, it was said: “Why is Turkey still forcing the EU-Turkey declaration, when Turkey has to bear such a heavy burden?” It was therefore examined in order to examine Turkey`s national interest in the context of “rational institutionalization” by facilitating cost-benefit calculations. Moreover, the encouragement of Turkish public opinion ensures that visa conditionality can enable cooperation while avoiding compromises.